Why Should We Pay Much Attention to Thermal Management Issue of High Bright LEDs?

02 Sep

Thanks to the situation of global energy shortage and environmental pollution, LEDs and their energy-saving and environmentally friendly features have broad application space, in the field of lighting, LED lighting products are attracting the attention of the world. Generally speaking, Whether LED lights can work stably, the quality of LEDs, and the thermal management of lamp body itself are very important, currently high brightness LED lamps in the market usually use natural cooling, and the effect is not satisfactory. LED lamps built with LED light source consist of LEDs, thermal structure, driver and lens, so thermal management is also an important part, if LEDs can not disperse heat well, their life will also be affected.

1. Thermal management is the main problem for high brightness LEDs to be widely used
Because p-type doping of group III nitrides is limited by the solubility of Mg acceptor and higher activation energy of the hole, it is particularly easy to generate heat in the p-type region, the heat can only be dissipated in the heat sink through the entire structure; the main heat dissipation channels of LED devices are heat conduction and heat convection; very low thermal conductivity of Sapphire substrates materials leads to thermal resistance increases of devices, and result in serious self-heating effects, which can cause devastating impact to device performance and reliability.

2. Effects that heat cuases to high brightness LEDs
Heat concentrating in a small chip will cause chip temperature increase, non-uniform distribution of thermal stress, decreases of light efficiency of chip and masing efficiency of phosphor powder; when the temperature exceeds a certain value, the failure efficiency of device increases exponentially. Statistics show that once device temperature increases by 2 ℃, reliability will decrease by 10%. When many LEDs are densely arranged and form white light lighting system, the heat dissipation problem is more serious. Solving thermal management issue has become the prerequisite of high brightness LED applications.

3. The relationship between chip size and heat dissipation
The most direct way to increase the brightness of high power LEDs is to increase the input power, and in order to prevent saturation of the active layer, the size of p-n junction must be increased accordingly; increasing input power is bound to the make junction temperature increase, thus reduce the quantum efficiency. Whether single-tube power can be increased depends on the ability that the device conduct the heat out from the p-n junction, under the condition of maintaining the current chip materials, structures, packaging technology, current density on the chip and equal heat dissipation conditions, only increasing the size of chips will result in continuous rise of junction area temperature.

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